Many illicit drug markets world development report 2011 pdf reached global dimensions and require control strategies on a comparable scale. In that context, there is a need to better understand these transnational markets and the manner in which they operate. The yearly World Drug Report is a contribution towards that objective. The president of the World Bank is, traditionally, an American.
The World Bank and the IMF are both based in Washington, D. Before 1974, the reconstruction and development loans provided by the World Bank were relatively small. The Bank’s staff were aware of the need to instill confidence in the bank. The first country to receive a World Bank loan was France. France over two other applicants, Poland and Chile.
250 million, half the amount requested, and it came with strict conditions. France had to agree to produce a balanced budget and give priority of debt repayment to the World Bank over other governments. World Bank staff closely monitored the use of the funds to ensure that the French government met the conditions. French government that its members associated with the Communist Party would first have to be removed.
Within hours, the loan to France was approved. 1947, many European countries began receiving aid from other sources. Faced with this competition, the World Bank shifted its focus to non-European countries. The size and number of loans to borrowers was greatly increased as loan targets expanded from infrastructure into social services and other sectors. Rotberg used the global bond market to increase the capital available to the bank.
In 1980 the World Bank Administrative Tribunal was established to decide on disputes between the World Bank Group and its staff where allegation of non-observance of contracts of employment or terms of appointment had not been honored. 1980s that the structural adjustment programs of the World Bank had been responsible for “reduced health, nutritional and educational levels for tens of millions of children in Asia, Latin America, and Africa”. Beginning in 1989, in response to harsh criticism from many groups, the bank began including environmental groups and NGOs in its loans to mitigate the past effects of its development policies that had prompted the criticism. Since then, in accordance with its so-called “Six Strategic Themes”, the bank has put various additional policies into effect to preserve the environment while promoting development. For example, in 1991 the bank announced that to protect against deforestation, especially in the Amazon, it would not finance any commercial logging or infrastructure projects that harm the environment. In order to promote global public goods, the World Bank tries to control communicable disease such as malaria, delivering vaccines to several parts of the world and joining combat forces. In 2000 the bank announced a “war on AIDS” and in 2011 the Bank joined the Stop Tuberculosis Partnership.