Texts that commonly list the perfect verb tenses chart pdf participle use the future active participle for intransitive verbs. Some verbs lack this principal part altogether.
There are four conjugations in Latin which define patterns of verb inflection. However the grouping in conjugations is based solely on the behaviour of the verb in the present system, and the stems for other forms cannot be inferred from the present stem, so several forms of the verb are necessary to be able to produce the full range of Latin verbal forms. Verbs which adhere to this pattern are considered to be “regular”. Personal endings are used in all tenses.
The present, imperfect, future, pluperfect and future perfect use the same personal endings in the active voice. However, the perfect, pluperfect and future perfect do not have personal endings in the passive voice. The perfect uses its own personal endings in the active voice, which are shown in the chart below. The tenses of the imperfective aspect are present, imperfect, and future tense.
This is often true both in the third conjugation and in the subjunctive mood of all conjugations. The present tense does not have a tense sign. Instead, the personal endings are added to the bare present stem. The present indicative expresses general truths, facts, demands and desires. I carry,” “I do carry,” or “I am carrying”.
In all but the third conjugation, only the thematical vowel of the stem is used. The first person singular of the indicative active present is the first principal part. Add the passive endings to form the passive voice. I am carried,” or “I am being carried”. The present subjunctive may be used to assert many things.
Some alterations have occurred in the vowels from the indicative and subjunctive. Like the indicative, active personal endings may be replaced by passive personal endings. Let me be carried” or “May I be carried. The present imperative conveys commands, pleas and recommendations. The imperative present occurs only in the second person. The second person singular in the active voice uses only the bare stem, and does not add an imperative ending.
The imperative present of the passive voice is rarely used, except in the case of deponent verbs, whose passive forms carry active meaning. The imperfect indicative simply expresses an action in the past that was not completed. I was carrying,” “I carried,” or “I used to carry”. As with the present tense, active personal endings are taken off, and passive personal endings are put in their place. I was being carried,” “I kept being carried,” or “I used to be carried”. In the subjunctive, the imperfect is quite important, especially in subordinate clauses.
Independently, it is largely translated conditionally. I should carry,” or “I would carry”. Unlike the indicative, the subjunctive does not modify the thematic vowel. As with the indicative subjunctive, active endings are removed, and passive endings are added. I should be carried,” or “I would be carried. The future tense always refers to an incomplete action.
In addition, the future tense is stricter in usage temporally in Latin than it is in English. I shall carry,” or “I will carry. As with all imperfective system tenses, active personal endings are removed, and passive personal endings are put on. The second person plural is absent here. This is the perfect stem, and it is used for all of the tenses in the perfective aspect. The perfective aspect verbs also use the perfect passive participle in the passive voice. Unlike the imperfective aspect, inflection does not deviate from conjugation to conjugation.