This edition contains Marx’s own handwritten corrections and uninterrupted power supply working principle pdf. Chapter 28: Bloody Legislation Against the Expropriated, from the End of the 15th Century.
Chapter 30: Reaction of the Agricultural Revolution on Industry. The modern reader is often perplexed about Marx going on about “one coat is equal to twenty yards of linen”. Marx is a use-value and also an exchange-value. The use-value of the commodity is determined by how useful the commodity is. The actual use-value, however, is immeasurable. He explains that use-value can only be determined “in use or consumption”.
After determining the commodity as being a use-value, he explains that a commodity is also an “exchange-value”. He explains this as the quantity of other commodities that it will exchange for. No matter their relationship, there will always be an equation where a certain amount of corn will exchange for a certain amount of iron. He sets up this example to say that all commodities are in essence parallel in that they can always be exchanged for certain quantities of other commodities.
He also explains that one cannot determine the exchange-value of the commodity simply by looking at it or examining its natural qualities. The exchange-value is not material but a measure made by humans. In order to determine the exchange-value, one must see the commodity being exchanged with other commodities. Marx explains that these two aspects of commodities are at the same time separate but also connected in that one cannot be discussed without the other. Marx explains that while the use-value of something can only change in quality, the exchange-value can only change in quantity. Marx then goes on to explain that the exchange-value of a commodity is merely an expression of its value.
However, value does not mean anything unless it conjoins back to use value. If a commodity is produced and no one wants it or it has no use, then “the labour does not count as labour,” and therefore it has no value. He also says that one can produce use-value without being a commodity. If one produces a commodity solely for his own benefit or need, he has produced use-value but no commodity. Value can only be derived when the commodity has use-value for others.