There are different contexts for language immersion, such as age of students, class time spent in the L2, subjects taught, and the level of participation by the native L1 speakers. Bilingual education in second language research methods pdf U.
L2 without assistance in the L1. According to the Center for Applied Linguistics, in 1971, there were only three immersion programs within the United States. As of 2011, there were 448 language immersion schools in the U. Bilingual education started from 3000 BC, it began with traditional language instruction in which target language was taught as a subject in schools.
The first language immersion program in which target language was taught as an instructional language started in Quebec, Canada, in 1965. Since the majority language in Quebec is French, English speaking parents wanted to ensure that their children could achieve a high level of French as well as English in Quebec. Since then, French immersion has spread across the country. It led to the situation of French immersion becoming the most common form of language immersion in Canada so far. 2011, there are over 528 immersion schools in the US. Besides, language immersion programs have spread to Australia, China, Saudi Arabia, Japan and Hong Kong that altogether they offer more than 20 languages.
The survey by CAL in 2011 has shown that Spanish is the most common immersion language in language immersion programs. There are over 239 Spanish language immersion programs in the US due to large number of immigrants from Spanish speaking countries. The other two common immersion language programs in the US are French and Mandarin which have 114 and 71 language immersion programs respectively. Types of language immersion can be characterized by the total time students spend in the program and also can be characterized by the student’s age. The main problem of this type of language immersion is students feel hard to understand of more abstract and complex concept if only learned by L2. Partial immersion: In partial immersion programs, the class time is taught by the students L1 and L2, it is usually half L1 and half L2. This type of language immersion is more acceptable for students.
Two-way immersion: This type, which is also called bilingual immersion, is a way to integrate language minority students and language majority students in the same classroom with the goal of academic excellence and bilingual proficiency for both student groups. In this type of language immersion, the instructional languages can be two languages but only one language at a time. Students learnt languages by the interaction with their peers and teachers. It is a popular language immersion way in America.
Early Immersion: Students start learning their second language at five years old or six years old. Middle immersion: Students start learning their second language around nine years old or ten years old. Late immersion: Students start learning their second language after the age of 11. The goals of the program are to develop careful listening skills, cultural and linguistic awareness, and interest in foreign languages for future language study, as well as to learn basic words and phrases in one or more foreign languages. In contrast to FLEX programs, proficiency in the target language is the primary goal, whereas a secondary goal is to expose students to the foreign language’s culture.