This is a featured article. Click here for more information. The sign in the window reads: “We homosexuals plead with our people reflected in you sylvia day pdf download 2shared please help maintain peaceful and quiet conduct on the streets of the Village.
Gay Americans in the 1950s and 1960s faced an anti-gay legal system. These influences, along with the liberal environment of Greenwich Village, served as catalysts for the Stonewall riots. Very few establishments welcomed openly gay people in the 1950s and 1960s. Those that did were often bars, although bar owners and managers were rarely gay. Police raids on gay bars were routine in the 1960s, but officers quickly lost control of the situation at the Stonewall Inn. Greenwich Village erupted into more protests the next evening, and again several nights later. After the Stonewall riots, gays and lesbians in New York City faced gender, race, class, and generational obstacles to becoming a cohesive community.
Within six months, two gay activist organizations were formed in New York, concentrating on confrontational tactics, and three newspapers were established to promote rights for gays and lesbians. Within a few years, gay rights organizations were founded across the U. Similar marches were organized in other cities. Today, Gay Pride events are held annually throughout the world toward the end of June to mark the Stonewall riots.
United States felt a fervent desire to “restore the prewar social order and hold off the forces of change”, according to historian Barry Adam. Army, and other government-funded agencies and institutions, leading to a national paranoia. American and subversive were considered security risks. Between 1947 and 1950, 1,700 federal job applications were denied, 4,380 people were discharged from the military, and 420 were fired from their government jobs for being suspected homosexuals.
State and local governments followed suit: bars catering to homosexuals were shut down, and their customers were arrested and exposed in newspapers. Cities performed “sweeps” to rid neighborhoods, parks, bars, and beaches of gay people. They outlawed the wearing of opposite gender clothes, and universities expelled instructors suspected of being homosexual. Thousands of gay men and women were publicly humiliated, physically harassed, fired, jailed, or institutionalized in mental hospitals. Many lived double lives, keeping their private lives secret from their professional ones. This view was widely influential in the medical profession.
In response to this trend, two organizations formed independently of each other to advance the cause of homosexuals and provide social opportunities where gays and lesbians could socialize without fear of being arrested. Their objectives were to unify homosexuals, educate them, provide leadership, and assist “sexual deviants” with legal troubles. Facing enormous opposition to its radical approach, in 1953 the Mattachine shifted their focus to assimilation and respectability. They reasoned that they would change more minds about homosexuality by proving that gays and lesbians were normal people, no different from heterosexuals.
Although the eight women who created the DOB initially came together to be able to have a safe place to dance, as the DOB grew they developed similar goals to the Mattachine, and urged their members to assimilate into general society. One of the first challenges to government repression came in 1953. Postal Service refused to mail its August issue, which concerned homosexuals in heterosexual marriages, on the grounds that the material was obscene despite it being covered in brown paper wrapping. 1958 ruled that ONE, Inc. Gradually, members of these organizations grew bolder. He had been fired from the U.
Army Map Service for being a homosexual, and sued unsuccessfully to be reinstated. Kameny wrote that homosexuals were no different from heterosexuals, often aiming his efforts at mental health professionals, some of whom attended Mattachine and DOB meetings telling members they were abnormal. The pickets shocked many gay people, and upset some of the leadership of Mattachine and the DOB. 1960s, as did their confrontations with police forces. On the outer fringes of the few small gay communities were people who challenged gender expectations. They were effeminate men and masculine women, or people assigned male at birth who dressed and lived as women and people assigned female at birth who dressed and lived as men, respectively, either part or full-time.
Contemporary nomenclature classified them as transvestites, and they were the most visible representatives of sexual minorities. They belied the carefully crafted image portrayed by the Mattachine Society and DOB that asserted homosexuals were respectable, normal people. The Mattachine and DOB considered the trials of being arrested for wearing clothing of the opposite gender as a parallel to the struggles of homophile organizations: similar but distinctly separate. Los Angeles in 1959 in response to police harassment. Compton’s Cafeteria riot as an “act of anti-transgender discrimination, rather than an act of discrimination against sexual orientation” and connects the uprising to the issues of gender, race, and class that were being downplayed by homophile organizations. The enclaves of gays and lesbians, described by a newspaper story as “short-haired women and long-haired men”, developed a distinct subculture through the following two decades.