Mmpi 2 questionnaire pdf Tatsuoka and Herbert Eber. English-language trait lexicon to elucidate the major underlying dimensions within the normal personality sphere.
Cattell found that personality structure was hierarchical, with both primary and secondary stratum level traits. These higher-level factors emerged from factor-analyzing the 16 x 16 intercorrelation matrix for the sixteen primary factors themselves. The 16PF yields scores on primary and second-order “global” traits, thereby allowing a multilevel description of each individual’s unique personality profile. Cattell also found a third-stratum of personality organization that comprised just two overarching factors. The 16PF has also been translated into over 30 languages and dialects and is widely used internationally.
Anxiety, Stress, Depression, Regression, Fatigue, Guilt, Extraversion, and Arousal. 185 multiple-choice items which are written at a fifth-grade reading level. 16PF editions, although many of them were re-written to simplify or update the language. The item content typically sounds non-threatening and asks simple questions about daily behavior, interests, and opinions. I am an even tempered person. When I find myself in a boring situation, I usually “tune out” and daydream about other things. When a bit of tact and convincing is needed to get people moving, I’m usually the one who does it.
Cattell argued that self-ratings relate to self-image, and are affected by self-awareness, and defensiveness about one’s actual traits. 50 minutes for the paper-and-pencil version and about 30 minutes by computer. Thus the test can be administered in different languages, scored based on either local, national, or international normative samples, and computerized interpretive reports provided in about 23 different languages. Internet-based system which can also provide administration, scoring, and reports at any Internet-enabled computer in a range of different languages. Below is a table outlining the personality traits measured by the 16PF Questionnaire.
Tense, high energy, impatient, driven, frustrated, over wrought, time driven. In fact, the development of the Big-Five factors began in 1963 with W. Norman factor-analyzing responses to the same items as the 16PF, replicating Cattell’s work and suggested that five factors would be sufficient. Oblique rotation allows the factors to correlate with each other, whereas orthogonal rotation restricts the factors from correlating with each other. Although personality traits are thought to be correlated, using orthogonal factor analysis makes the factors easier to understand and to work on statistically in research. This is one of the reasons the Big-Five traits have definitions that are different from the 16PF global factors. Accommodation global factor which represents a quality of fearless, original thinking and forceful, independent actions.
Big-Five traits, including Extraversion, Dis-Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. Below is a table that shows how the 16 primary factors are related to the five global factors of the 16 Personality Factor theory. Also, note that factor B is considered separate from the other factors because it is not a part of the hierarchical structure of personality in the same way as the other factors. Assumptions shared by standardized personality tests, simply stated, are that humans possess characteristics or traits that are stable, vary from individual to individual, and can be measured. Factor analysis is a statistical procedure for reducing the redundancy in a set of intercorrelated scores. One major technique of factor analysis, the principal-components method, finds the minimum number of common factors that can account for an interrelated set of scores. Cattell’s goal was to empirically determine and measure the essence of personality.
Cattell used factor analysis to reduce thousands of psychological traits into what he believed to be 16 of the basic dimensions, or source traits of human personality. As a result, he created the 16PF personality test. The 16PF Questionnaire was created from a fairly unusual perspective among personality tests. Most personality tests are developed to measure just the pre-conceived traits that are of interest to a particular theorist or researcher.