This article is semi-protected until December 11, 2021. This article is about fungi. These gills produce microscopic spores that help the fungus spread across the ground or its occupant surface. The presence of juices upon breaking, bruising reactions, odors, tastes, shades of color, habitat, habit, and season are all considered by both amateur and microscopic identification of fungi pdf mycologists.
However, over-mature specimens lose features and cease producing spores. Other mushrooms are not gilled, so the term “mushroom” is loosely used, and giving a full account of their classifications is difficult. Approximately 14,000 species of mushrooms are described. The terms “mushroom” and “toadstool” go back centuries and were never precisely defined, nor was there consensus on application.
However, delineation between edible and poisonous fungi is not clear-cut, so a “mushroom” may be edible, poisonous, or unpalatable. German name for the toadstool, meaning “flies’ mushroom”. The primordium enlarges into a roundish structure of interwoven hyphae roughly resembling an egg, called a “button”. Many mushrooms lack a universal veil, therefore they do not have either a volva or volval patches. Mushrooms lacking partial veils do not form an annulus.
In other mushrooms, a stalk may be absent, as in the polypores that form shelf-like brackets. The way the gills attach to the top of the stalk is an important feature of mushroom morphology. There are a great number of variations between the extremes of free and decurrent, collectively called attached gills. These distinctions between attached gills are sometimes difficult to interpret, since gill attachment may change as the mushroom matures, or with different environmental conditions. Many types of cystidia exist, and assessing their presence, shape, and size is often used to verify the identification of a mushroom. The most important microscopic feature for identification of mushrooms is the spores.
Many species of mushrooms seemingly appear overnight, growing or expanding rapidly. In reality all species of mushrooms take several days to form primordial mushroom fruit bodies, though they do expand rapidly by the absorption of fluids. Slightly expanded they are called buttons, once again because of the relative size and shape. They “mushroom” to full size. It has been suggested the electrical stimulus of a lightning bolt striking mycelia in logs accelerates the production of mushrooms. UV light has a long record of safe use for production of vitamin D in food.