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Although there exists a wide body of the literature for the TSP and the VRP, the mTSP has not received the same amount of attention. The purpose of this survey is to review the problem and its practical applications, to highlight some formulations and to describe exact and heuristic solution procedures proposed for this problem. Check if you have access through your login credentials or your institution. The diagram accompanies Book II, Proposition 5.

How Long Is the Coast of Britain? How Good is the Simplex Algorithm? Believed to have been written around the 8th century BC, this is one of the oldest mathematical texts. Contains the application of right angle triangles for survey of depth or height of distant objects.

Aryabhata introduced the method known as “Modus Indorum” or the method of the Indians that has become our algebra today. This algebra came along with the Hindu Number system to Arabia and then migrated to Europe. It also gave the modern standard algorithm for solving first-order diophantine equations. This book by Tang dynasty mathematician Wang Xiaotong Contains the world’s earliest third order equation. Contained rules for manipulating both negative and positive numbers, rules for dealing the number zero, a method for computing square roots, and general methods of solving linear and some quadratic equations, solution to Pell’s equation. Contains the earliest invention of 4th order polynomial equation. Contains the application of high order polynomial equation in solving complex geometry problems.