This definition excludes highly specialized learning that can only be obtained with extensive training and information confined to a single medium. Studies have found that people who are highly knowledgeable in a particular domain tend to be knowledgeable in many. A number of studies have found that males tend to have greater general knowledge than females, perhaps due to gender differences in interests rather than memory ability. Differential psychology researchers define general knowledge as “culturally valued knowledge communicated general knowledge pdf download a range of non-specialist media.
The scope of this definition includes all areas of knowledge available to laypersons without requiring extensive training. The definition excludes “ephemera”, or information confined to a single medium, such as television sitcoms. Researchers have acknowledged that other domains of general knowledge may exist. Factor analysis suggested that the 20 domains could be categorised into six factors: current affairs, fashion, family, physical health and recreation, arts, and science. High scorers on tests of general knowledge tend to also score highly on intelligence tests. General knowledge is also moderately associated with verbal ability, though only weakly or not at all with numerical and spatial ability. As with crystallized intelligence, general knowledge has been found to increase with age.