Thus there are more ways for a family to be unhappy than happy. Diamond uses this principle to illustrate why so few wild animals have been successfully domesticated throughout history, as a deficiency in any one anna karenina pdf download a great number of factors can render a species undomesticable. Therefore all successfully domesticated species are not so because of a particular positive trait, but because of a lack of any number of possible negative traits.
To be a candidate for domestication, a species must be easy to feed. Finicky eaters make poor candidates. Non-finicky omnivores make the best candidates. The animal must grow fast enough to be economically feasible.
Elephant farmers, for example, would wait perhaps 12 years for their herd to reach adult size. The species must breed well in captivity. These rituals could include the need for privacy or long, protracted mating chases. Some species are too ill-tempered to be good candidates for domestication. Farmers must not be at risk of life or injury every time they enter the animal pen.
Europeans alike as extremely valuable and useful to domesticate, but it proved impossible to tame. Horses in Africa proved to be susceptible to disease and attack by a wide variety of animals, while the very characteristics that made the zebra hardy and survivable in the harsh environment of Africa also made it fiercely independent. Species are genetically predisposed to react to danger in different ways. A species that immediately takes flight is a poor candidate for domestication. A species that freezes, or mingles with the herd for cover in the face of danger, is a good candidate.
North America have proven almost impossible to domesticate and have difficulty breeding in captivity. Horses, however, immediately thrived from the time they were introduced to North America in the 16th century. Species of lone, independent animals make poor candidates. Different social groups must also be tolerant of one another.
All happy companies are different: each one earns a monopoly by solving a unique problem. All failed companies are the same: they failed to escape competition. By that, Tolstoy meant that for a marriage to be happy, it had to succeed in several key aspects. Failure on even one of these aspects, and the marriage is doomed . Anna Karenina principle also applies to ecological risk assessments involving multiple stressors. For men are good in but one way, but bad in many. Many experiments and observations of groups of humans, animals, trees, grassy plants, stockmarket prices, and changes in the banking sector proved the modified Anna Karenina principle.
It seems, paradoxically, that as systems become more different they actually become more correlated within limits. The same effect is found in the stock market. It seems that in good situations a number of requirements must hold simultaneously, while to call a situation bad even one failure suffices. Zero to One: Notes on Startups, or How to Build the Future.